Earlier this year, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) released the results of a survey looking at just this subject. Their survey looked at the status of employer’s mobility policy, with a focus on sustainability and the need to move to transport methods beyond the car.

Based on detailed interviews with over 30 companies of various sizes in different sectors, the results give a sober, clear-eyed perspective on where we are. They also highlight the two distinct approaches being taken by companies in Belgium.

Supercharging the move to electric

Of the companies interviewed, 60% had already adopted an electric vehicle (EV) only mobility policy. By moving to a zero emissions fleet, these companies are benefiting from the 100% tax deductibility scheme of these vehicles from the Belgian government. By comparison, CO2 emitting vehicles will see their tax deductibility drop to 0% by the end of 2026.

This makes the move to EV not just a sustainable choice, but a business case. Such a strong tax benefit has a profound impact on the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of such vehicles.

It’s not a surprise then, that of the remaining companies, 83% plan to make the change to EV in the near future.

One country, two directions

However, it’s not all plain sailing. There are two distinct approaches to mobility policy in Belgium: early adopters and skeptics.

The skeptical businesses are taking the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) approach with their decision making. This is hampering the adoption of EVs, with only 30% of a fleet being electric where TCO methodology is applied.

By comparison, the early adopters have an 80% fully electric fleet, with the remaindered including technology such as hybrid cars.

So, why the disparity? It comes down to how the change is being managed and implemented within the business. Early adopters are taking a proactive approach to transitioning their teams. Events and opportunities are made for employees to learn about EVs and their implication from the company. Skeptics rely on the interest and initiative of the employee to seek out information on changing to low-emission vehicles.

Charging up the team

Irrespective of the approach being used, 100% of companies provide charging infrastructure at home and the office for employees with EVs. They also cover the charging fees when needed off-site as well.

This includes the installation of charging stations at home by many employers. Though, interestingly, skeptical businesses are more likely to pay for the installation than early adopting businesses. The impact of this cost can be offset by the emergence of leased charging stations, which are an increasingly common option across Belgium.

On your bike…

The change in mobility policy extends beyond EVs, however. In 2018, the Belgian government introduced the Federal Mobility Budget, with the aim of moving people out of their cars and on to bikes or public transport.

This budget contributes towards the cost of bicycle leases, purchases, and public transport costs. It can also be used to give a tax-exempt reimbursement of mortgage or home rental costs. The latter is proving very popular and the easiest to administrate.

The use of the Federal Mobility Budget is higher amongst the early adopting businesses. They are embracing a policy which uses many different, financially supported transport methods to make their business more sustainable. Known as a multimodal mobility policy, this approach leads to more flexible options for employees which increase the effectiveness of the initiative.

Skeptical businesses, who are still in the process of justifying EVs, mostly miss the opportunities which the Federal Mobility Budget and multimodal policies present to their budget and employees.

Not all good news

Whilst the transition to more sustainable mobility is key, there are risks in doing so. Risks which many companies seem to have not yet considered.

PwC highlights, for example, that whilst the tax deductions for zero emissions are great now, there’s no guarantee of how long they will continue. If a company has a large fleet of EVs, then any shift in government policy away from the 100% tax deductible status for these vehicles could have a large impact on their bottom line.

Similarly, the complexity which the Belgian government is building into their policies can be painful for business operations. A current example is the reimbursement of charging fees for employees. Many companies are paying an average cost based on electricity prices published by the electricity market authority CREG. This makes these payments relatively simple to work out. Unfortunately, this is illegal. The Belgian government wants companies to pay back their employees exactly what they paid. This is a time and administration heavy exercise which is an additional cost the business will have to bear.

For companies large and small, it’s clear that the time to update your mobility policy is now. Not only to bring it in line with your sustainability goals, but, with the tax breaks available, to save both your business and your employees money. But be mindful that both the tax benefits and the Federal Mobility Budget are transitional benefits designed to cover the next few years only. It’s therefore prudent to build in regular reviews of your policy to ensure that it is the most effective solution for your business and employees going forward.

If you’d like to read more on the PwC survey, you can find it here.


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Every year, in early Spring, the team at Tourism Flemish Brabant create a Dutch language guide to exploring the province on foot. However, this year, they’ve also created a limited edition, English language guide.

The guide outlines 12 walks, suitable for new and experienced walkers, listed by the season when they’re best visited. You’ll also found details of the route markers you need to follow, plus recommendations of places to visit and eat around the walks.

And the best bit? The guide is free, all you have to do is pay the postage!

Not sure if you need a FREE walking guide in your life? Well, here are our four favourite walks from the guide. If you want the other eight, you’ll need to pick up your own copy.

Big Oak Walk – Bierbeek

Located around 30 minutes east of Brussels, Bierbeek is a small town nestled in the countryside.

The walk covers 12.6km through woodland, including over 1,000 majestic oak trees. This is a lovely area to lose yourself in nature and get away from the hustle of the city.

And when you’re done, what to do? Well, the guide gives a strong recommendation of a bistro where you can “enjoy a local beer and something scrumptious”, which is always great in our book!

Halewijn Walk – Zoutleeuw

An hour’s drive outside of Brussels sits the city of Zoutleeuw. With a population of just under 8,500 people, Zoutleeuw is home to the historical St. Leonard’s Church which is a UNESCO world heritage site.

The Halewijn walk covers 11.4km and will take you by St. Leonard’s, if you’d like to visit. Before that, you’ll be treated to trip through Het Vinne Provincial Domain, a nature reserve which includes the largest natural lake in Flanders.

Het Vinne also includes a watch tower to see the whole lake, a playground for the kids and an art trail with free art book. If you want to see the lake and learn more about it, there’s a free, 90-minute tour available.

Kesterbeek Walk – Beersel

Beersel is 30 minutes’ drive south of Brussels, though you can get there by train in just 18 minutes.

At only 8km, this walk does include some height, so get ready to elevate your heart rate. Running through the Zenne River’s valley, this is a fantastic way to enjoy the local countryside and to work up a thirst for a trip to the local brewery when you’re done.

Whilst you’re in Beersel, we’d recommend you take a trip to Beersel Castle. Built in 1300, it has a rich history and is considered one of Belgium best preserved castles.

Warande Walk – Tervuren

17.5km to the east of Brussels lies the historic town of Tervuren. A treasure trove of historical and cultural sites, the village of Tervuren is worth a visit on its own.

The Warande walk encompasses the St Hubert Chapel, Het Spaans Huis restaurant, and the Royal Museum for Central Africa. At only 5.8km long, you get a lot of sights for a short distance.

The Royal Museum for Central Africa holds a vast collection of specimens from central Africa, including over 10,000,000 specimens in the Department of Zoology, 200,000 rock samples in the Department of Geology and over 120,000 objects in the Department of Cultural Anthropology.

Finally, if Tervuren sounds familiar, that might mean you’re a dog lover. One of the four distinct varieties of Belgian Shepherd takes its name from this region.

Our thanks to the team at Tourism Flemish Brabant for letting us have a sneak peek at the latest, limited-edition English language walking guide. If you’d like a copy of your own, it is available now and you can pick it up here, for the price of the postage.




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A simple, three steps to success?

The application process to work in Belgium consists of a work authorisation, residence permit and then the visa.

The permit processes must be completed one after the other, and where you need to apply will vary depending on where you specifically plan to work. The three main Belgian regions of Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels all have their own distinct systems for completing these steps.

Once you have completed and received a positive result for the work authorisation and residence permit, you may then approach the local Belgian embassy to apply for your visa to come.

This sounds fairly simply and, aside from some form filling and documentation, it is… on paper.

The realities of the process

The biggest challenge facing people who wish to come to Belgium to work is wait times.

For over 2 years, the process of permits and visas has been so long winded and uncertain, that applicants are terminating their contract before ever starting work.

The wait time for a work permit is somewhere between 7 and 11 weeks from application. If that is successful, then the residency permit suffers similar delays, with, again, 7 to 11 weeks being standard. If you wait those out and are successful, you then need to visit your local Belgian embassy… maybe.

Many embassies have outsourced their visa application processes to external organisations to handle the volume. In some countries this can take 3 months to get an appointment. In others, Turkey for example, the outsourced company has stopped taking applications all together.

All in all, this means you are likely looking at somewhere around 4 to 6 months before you’re likely to be ready to start your new role.

What can you do to improve your process?

This all sounds pretty dire and depressing. When you’ve just landed that dream job in another country, the last thing you want to do is wait and wait based on bureaucracy.

So, what can you do to improve the experience?

First, unfortunately, we’d recommend that you prepare yourself for the wait. There is going to be a noticeable time to wait before you can move, so we suggest that you plan for the longer wait and hope for a quicker turn around.

Second, get things right first time, and respond quickly. With such a duration to wait, the last thing you need is to be rejected or have questions asked because you missed a document or incorrectly answered a question.

Third, make sure you know what you can and cannot apply for. For example, if you plan to bring family with you including children over 18, they can’t join your application as a dependent.

Our final suggestion, which will certainly help with the last two points, is to speak to one of our members and get their professional help with your application. Having someone who understands the system, understands the nuances of the process, and knows what to look out for will be invaluable to a speedy and successful application. They will also be able to proactively follow up and move on your application, ensuring that any delay which can be removed is removed.

Is it worth it?

The reality is that Belgium has need of a great number of workers across a huge number of careers in our country. The work is here for those who want it and can wait on the long-winded process to get their visa.

As a country, Belgium offers some uniquely diverse and beautiful places to live in the midst of a vibrant and exciting country. Call us biased, but we think it’s worth the wait.

That said, we do agree that the wait times are currently unreasonable and actually miss the Government’s stated objective timelines. That’s why ABRA continues to advocate for a more streamlined, efficient and effective solution to the visa delay issue for both our members, and people like you.




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Near-term Outlook

Even if some commodity and energy prices have peaked, any drop in headline inflation from negative energy base effects will not materialise at the start of 2022. Instead, energy base effects look likely to push up headline inflation in the first few months of 2022. At the same time, cost-push inflation is gaining momentum. Here, producers’ selling price expectations are close to, or at, record highs and even in the services sector, selling price expectations are now close to all-time highs.

Traditionally, it takes between six and twelve months before any pass-through from higher producer prices to consumer prices materialises. There are no standard estimates for this pass-through as pricing power differs depending, for example, on the state of the economic cycle or the level of competition. In the current situation, both in the US and eurozone, high backlogs in the manufacturing sector and cash-rich consumers suggest there is strong potential for a significant pass-through.

On top of this, the lack of skilled workers has already started to exert upward pressure on wages. In the eurozone, despite some slack and furlough schemes, the labour market has recovered unexpectedly fast and is also showing the first signs of a supply-demand mismatch. Add to this inflation-indexation in some countries, and unions focusing on wage rises instead of job security in others, and we should see higher wages next year as well.

Inflation Outlook 2022

All of the above suggests that elevated inflation levels will be ‘transitory’ but this period of transition could be longer than previously anticipated. Even if some of the one-off factors fade out of Year-on-Year inflation next year, the delayed pass-through from higher producer prices as well as lockdown-related price volatility could still impact inflation far into 2022. As a consequence, we see headline inflation slowing in the second half of 2022 but still staying above pre-pandemic levels.

Longer-term Considerations

The disinflationary period of the last decade was not only the result of the balance sheet recession and subsequent deleveraging and low growth but also a result of two external developments: the emergence of China in the global economy and cheap labour as well as digitalisation (price transparency, competition and making services mobile).

In addition to the trends mentioned above, including wage-price spirals and sustainably higher commodity prices, it is important to assess how these two major ‘external’ drivers will shape inflation in the coming years. Regarding globalisation, it could in fact be more de-globalisation, protectionism and regionalisation of supply chains which push price levels higher. Also, with China’s ambition to become a fully developed economy, the country’s role in the global economy could become inflationary rather than disinflationary. Sure, there is still an enormous pool of untapped labour, be it in Africa or Asia, but the question is whether these regions will be able to take over the role of cheap labour provided by China quickly or whether this will only come with a long delay. Some economists even claim that the ageing of the global population and the adverse trend of the dependency ratio will result in higher real wages leading to greater inflationary pressure. Even the Japanese experience seems to indicate that an ageing economy has a preference for low inflation.

The disinflationary impact from digitalisation, however, could last a while. Price transparency, increased competition and services becoming mobile have exerted disinflationary pressure on most economies over the last decade and are likely to continue to do so over the coming years. On a different note, it is still unclear how the costs of the energy transition will affect inflation going forward. Don’t expect permanent upward pressure on prices but rather inflationary spikes on the back of carbon pricing or higher or new taxes. It is very early to draw strong conclusions about longer-term inflation trends on the back of the pandemic, but these moves could be far more relevant than most of the transitory factors mentioned above. Changes to underlying inflation trends will not cause large jumps in the immediate outlook, but if indeed a somewhat higher trend in inflation emerges in the aftermath of the pandemic, this would be key for central bank policy.

All in all, inflation is expected to remain at elevated, albeit lower levels than at present, until at least mid-2022. Once all base effects and one-off factors have petered out, inflation will still not return to pre-pandemic levels as there are many good reasons to believe that former structurally disinflationary drivers will become inflationary in the years to come. In the case of Belgium, inflation could even remain above 2% on average in 2022, as Belgium is more exposed to shocks on the price of energy and as automatic wage indexation (a particularity of the Belgian economy) is likely to boost wage cost and so… inflation.

Peter Vanden Houte, Chief Economist ING Belgium

Philippe Ledent, Expert Economist ING Belgium


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The most frequent questions immigration providers receive from clients are:
∞ What Brexit scenario should we prepare for?
∞ When should we start preparing?
∞ How should we prepare?

Answering these questions is difficult, but not impossible.

Preparing for a soft or a hard Brexit?

So what scenario should you prepare for? To answer this question, companies should look at what decision makers are currently doing. Both in the UK and in the EU (at EU and at national level) decision makers keep highlighting their commitment to finding a deal. However at the same time, everyone is also preparing for a no-deal scenario. For example, the French government published a draft law in November 2018 to create a no-deal legal framework. Other countries, such as Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Czech Republic have made public their no deal preparations as of the beginning of 2019. In addition, the European Commission published three communications last year – one in July, one in November and one in December – urging all stakeholders, from national administrations to citizens and economic operators, to prepare for a hard Brexit.

This is indeed the most cautious thing to do. On the one hand, possible disturbances caused by a hard Brexit could be very costly for companies. On the other hand, all the efforts put into preparing for a hard Brexit would not be wasted if, eventually, a soft Brexit occurs. Why? Because the hard Brexit and the soft Brexit scenarios are in the end not so different from each.
Three main aspects distinguish them. The first one is the two year transition period (30th of March 2019 – 1st of January 2021) which would be implemented only if the Withdrawal Agreement is ratified and enters into force by 30th of March 2019 (soft Brexit).

The second one is the level of protection to be granted to UK/EU nationals residing in the EU/UK prior to the Brexit day (less generous in case of a hard Brexit). And the third one is the nature of the future EU-UK relationship. In a hard Brexit scenario there would be no time to negotiate. So, from an immigration perspective, we would fall back immediately on already existing immigration schemes (GATS mode IV, EU permits, national permits) as of 30th of March 2019. This does not mean however that, in the future, this could not be re-negotiated and amended. In a soft Brexit scenario, there would certainly be talks about the future arrangements during the transition period, and some more ambitious schemes could be put in place.

Nevertheless, understanding what impact Brexit will have on current employees and future employees is crucial for all businesses. And some of this analysis will be the same in both scenarios. The major consequences will be felt only two years later if there is a soft Brexit. Yet, the sooner companies start preparing, the better chances they stand to avoid all possible disruptions and negative consequences on their employees.

When should companies start preparing?

Ideally, preparations should already be on-going. Although there is still a lot of uncertainty, companies and employees can already take steps to protect their rights and prepare for the future, irrespective of what the future will look like. All concerned people must make sure they are making use of all existing tools and schemes already in place and that they are ready for when new ones will be available for them.

How should companies prepare?

The first thing to do is classify the stakeholders within the company who will be impacted. Some of the stakeholders are easy to identify: EU nationals locally hired in the UK or UK nationals locally hired in an EU country. But Brexit might also have an impact on cross border workers, business travellers, employees temporarily assigned in the UK or an EU country, and even third country nationals in some situations. Moreover, Brexit will also impact future employees. Therefore, recruiters and HR departments must be aware of how their work will be influenced by Brexit.

Once the stakeholders are identified, it is crucial to put a communication strategy in place with tailored messages to all groups of stakeholders. Employers should reassure employees to make sure they retain them. In addition, they should train recruiters and HR specialists to help them understand the implications of a soft or a hard Brexit.

The third step – not necessarily in a chronological order as some of these steps can be taken simultaneously – would be to collect data about the impacted employees. It is no longer sufficient to know who they are. Companies must also have information about their length of stay in the host country, nationality of their family members, type of employment, employment conditions, education, etc. All of this data is necessary to create preparedness strategies and contingency plans.

And lastly, get ready to implement these strategies and plans. Brexit is an ever changing landscape and is very difficult to keep up with. There are no exact deadlines, no exact timelines, no precise outcome. Companies must be flexible. They must make sure they have all the necessary resources and are ready to act at any time. With all the uncertainty around Brexit, only one thing is certain. As cliché as this may seem, companies should definitely hope for the best, but prepare for the worst.

With thanks to Andreia Ghimis, Senior Consultant EU Government and Client Advisory at Fragomen

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